Stock Picking – Part 2: Determine Your Investment Goals

Part 2: Determine Your Investment Goals

Objective: Identify your investment objectives first, and then let them guide you when you’re choosing a stock.


The main objective for investing in anything is to make money. With stocks, you make money two ways by selling your shares at a higher price than you paid and from dividend payments. Additionally, your decision to invest in a stock could be supported by a number of other reasons. Such reasons will guide you in the selection process.

Here are some reasons to buy a stock:

  • To fund your retirement 
  • For faster portfolio growth
  • To generate dividend income
  • You see potential growth in a particular sector, so you want a good stock from that sector
  • The economy is looking to slow down, so you want to invest in a defensive stock
  • The economy has been in a slump for a while but now business activity is starting to pick up, so you want to buy stocks to get in on the action
  • You like a company for its products, services, or growth potential, so you want to be a shareholder.

My investment objectives vary as I want to invest for the long-term (a fun and comfy retirement life) and the short-term (concerts, trips, and buying a couple of properties in Canada and somewhere hot).

For my retirement portfolio, it’s all about the long game and I’m looking to invest in something that will do me well for years, even decades. So, I look for stocks that have ‘blue chip’ qualities: they pay dividends, they’re well-known, well-established and have been around for a long time, and they usually offer more than one type of product or service which allows them to adapt to various consumer demands and trends. It’s also a bonus when the stocks are in defensive sectors such as utilities and consumer staples. I don’t do much analysis here, I apply a very basic, rudimentary logic.

There is no guarantee these stocks won’t suffer when the economy is slow, but the idea is that even during tough times, they’ll do better or suffer less, and they’ll still likely pay you dividends. If their stock prices take a hit, I’ll likely buy more shares when they start to recover because they’ll be cheaper.

For my swing trades, I look for stocks that look like they’ll do well over the next few months to a year. I look for typically strong stocks that have been quiet for a while and haven’t seen much trading action. When this happens, it’s usually because their sectors have also been quiet. If all the stocks in a particular sector have been down for a while, I’ll narrow down my selection based on the stock price and volume. (See Stock Picking – Part 1.)

The selection process for my swing trades is more involved as I use a very basic form of technical analysis of a stock’s price history to help me decide on where I’m going to buy and where I’m likely going to sell. Technical analysis is about analyzing the price history of a stock in relation to its trading volume, sector, and market environment. 

Many people dispute the validity of technical analysis and prefer to examine the fundamentals of a company’s value in relation to its share price instead. They’re all valid to some degree and many financial pros analyze both the technical and fundamental information.

I prefer to analyze charts because I’d rather see if I’m paying much more than others who got in earlier than me. The lower the price I pay for a stock, the more confident I am in the trade. It’s not a guarantee that the price won’t go lower, but even if it does, I will suffer less by getting in at a lower price than if I bought a stock after it became hot and expensive. I never buy a stock after it makes the news because it’s usually too expensive by then.

chart-1d

Above is a very basic chart of a stock that I actually own. I consider a stock to be ‘quiet’ if it’s trading sideways (the first horizontal line). Think of a stock’s price in terms of flying in an airplane; trading sideways is like starting on the runway. I try to buy either when it’s still on the runway or just as it’s taking off (no higher than where the airplane is). So I just have a quick glance at a stock’s chart to determine if it’s just taken off or if it’s gone far beyond the clouds. If it has long taken off already, I’ll just wait for another sideways setup. Sometimes this wait time could take months to years and I’ll just keep checking the charts every now and then.

For years, I’ve been using freestockcharts.com to look up charts for Canadian and U.S. stocks. It’s FREE and the features and tools for the charts are very similar to what you would use if you had a pro trading account with a brokerage. To look up a stock, you just type the company name and you can select it from the list of options it provides. Sometimes a company will trade on both the Canadian and US stock exchanges, so be sure you’re selecting the proper exchange for you. There are many short and informative tutorials available on its site and on YouTube.

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I look at the charts for everything I buy for both long-term buys and shorter-term swing trades as my goal is always to buy shares at lower prices. For the long-term trades, it’s more important that the stocks meet some ‘blue chip’ criteria. For the swing trades, I rely more on technical analysis, the sectors, and the markets.

Next time, I’ll get into how I analyze sectors and markets!

 

 

Basic Guidelines to Debt Reduction

debt

Whether you’re trying to aggressively pay off your debts or saving for some big goal (like buying a home), the principles of money management are very similar. In many ways, the way you live your life may seem the same because the key to long-term success is more about establishing good ongoing habits and making them a part of your regular decision-making process. In other words, all goals involve a plan, some structure, discipline in practice, the determination to stay on track, and faith in the process.

If you have debts, you can’t successfully pay them down without accepting and following these fundamental guidelines:

Get rid of the high-interest debts first and avoid incurring this kind of debt ever again. 

When you make a loan payment, a big part of it goes to interest and rest goes to the principal amount that you borrowed. The higher the interest, the harder it is to pay off the borrowed amount. Paying off the high-interest debts first will mean paying less interest overall. Credit cards are typically the high-interest culprits. Once you pay off your credit cards, be sure to pay off the full balance each month going forward.

Consolidate your debts wisely.

You could reduce the high-interest debts by consolidating them into a low-interest loan such as a credit line with the bank. If you have student loans from the Canadian government, then you could be getting a tax credit back from the interest  portion of your repayment — you may want to hold off on consolidating them with your other debts and pay these off separately.

If you’re not able to get a low-interest credit line, then proceed to pay off the debt with the smallest balance first (of course, while paying the minimums on your other debts). Once that’s paid off, then pay off the next smallest balance and keep going until you slay the rest of them. Some credit cards offer very low to zero percent interest for a limited amount of time (usually a year). If it’s realistic to pay the full balance off within those time constraints, you could consider transferring your other debt balances to such credit cards for a service charge. But please remember…

Do not increase your debts.

…just because you transferred your credit card balances to lower-interest options doesn’t mean it’s time to go shopping again. If you can’t take your own debt takedown seriously, then you can’t expect others to take your goals seriously. If the temptation is too much to handle, cancel those cards. 

Cut your costs and spending every which way. 

You must be ruthless when it comes to reducing your bills and expenses. There are endless ways to cut costs and the internet is bursting with budgeting tips. Paying off debts doesn’t mean enduring years of suffering. You can still have fun and reward yourself from time to time — you just have to spend wisely and get creative with low-budget options. I’ve created ‘Fun’ancial Tidbits to inspire wise spending and mindful money management. Additionally, it’s essential that you address any emotional spending habits that weaken your will (like gambling or a shopping addiction) because caving into these habits even just once will sabotage your efforts. 

Have a good, solid budget that you can work with.

Some periods will be tougher than others as you tackle your debt. “Loan Payments” is going to be a major part of your budget for a while. If your budget is complicated, overly ambitious, and not realistic, you could be setting yourself up for possible failure. You should overestimate your expenses as it’s easier to end up with a surplus than it is to get blindsided by an unexpected deficit. It’s also a good idea to forecast your budget ahead by a few months to factor in upcoming events, birthdays, holidays, annual expenses, etc. That way, you can get more strategic ahead of time by reducing your spending further or picking up extra work to make up the difference or to catch up faster.

Get professional assistance from reputable financial institutions. 

You might feel like your debt situation offers no hope. The folks at your bank are pros and have seen it all. If you’re shy about going in to talk to someone in person, you can call them and ask them for advice and they can provide service over the phone. They can advise you on your loan payment options and various strategies. These advisors can surprise you with helpful things you maybe never thought of. If you give them a chance to support you, you increase your chances of succeeding in paying off your debts.

Share your goals with your loved ones.

It’s understandable if you want to keep your financial woes a private matter; you either don’t want to stress others out or be judged by your problems. You might feel alone and get stressed out as you work hard to unburden yourself of debts. It’s nice to get emotional support from people who really care about you. With team support, you can share stuff, exchange money-saving ideas, and have low-budget gatherings. Heck, you’ll probably find out who your real friends are!

The journey towards financial freedom can seem long and arduous. You have to know that there are many folks out there, just like you, who have worked through seemingly impossible situations to pay off their debts. They put their minds to it, created a plan, and learned a new set of money management skills that set them up for financial success later on. Overcoming a hurdle like this will give you the confidence and good habits to successfully tackle your future goals. 

YOU GOT THIS!   

Investors Need Goals & Goals Need Plans

About four years ago, my friend Monica posted on FB a quote by Antione de Saint-Exupéry:

“A goal without a plan is just a wish.”

This quote has guided me since. I had many wishes that never came true because I did nothing about them. Some I actually followed through with because I came up with a plan: I determined what steps I needed to take, the possible costs involved, the amount of time needed, and whom to seek advice and support from. I didn’t always end up with exactly what I was initially going for, but because I always got something out of shooting for the stars, I found I enjoyed taking chances on new opportunities.

Yes, you need money to invest, but not as much as you might think in order to start. Another thing: Money isn’t the only thing you need for investing. Successfully managing your money involves the following actions:

  • Setting goals
  • Seeking professional advice
  • Making a plan
  • Regularly setting money aside for your goals 
  • Educating yourself
  • Staying on track 

This seems like a lot of steps but it doesn’t have to be a very in-depth process. The most important step is to set your goals. You need to know what you want and why you want it. Of course, everyone wants to invest to simply have more money for all the things we want in life. However, having specific goals helps you focus your intent and direct your money. Without goals, it’s very easy to go off track and neglect your efforts–you’ll remain in a state of wishing for longer than you want.

Over the years, my man and I have put together a decent home gym with a library of workout DVDs which I follow (or else for an entire hour, I’ll end up curling 1s while walking zoned out on the treadmill). I have a lot of Jillian Michaels workout DVDs because her tough-love yelling motivates me while I whimper and sweat it out. She shares my disdain for hauling ass to the gym (though my gym is just downstairs), but she works out not just for the numerous benefits of exercise, but in order to live a long healthy life. Regularly, she loosely quotes Nietzsche: “If you have a WHY, you can tolerate any HOW!!!”

I’m a reluctant exerciser. However, as of the last decade, it’s become my standard practice to workout two to four times a week. Arthritis runs in my family, so I’m motivated to exercise and eat healthily to reduce its severity in case I ever get it. Without this reason, I’d succumb to laziness and eating chips (my fave!) all day.

On a personal level, I tend to draw a lot of comparisons between exercising and investing. When I put in the time to exercise, I’m investing in my current well-being and in my future health. Today’s pain-in-the-butt efforts lead to short-term and long-term benefits. Investing is another form of exercise. You part with some of your money today to make it grow in the meantime, so you that can use it for a bigger goal in the future. When you invest, you’re making a statement with your money — you’re saying that your goals and life in the future are important to you.  

Set your sights on your goals and get focussed. Want that house. Give your kids a good education so they can build great careers for themselves. Enjoy a well-deserved vacation. Have a comfortable, rocking retirement. Know what you want out of your life and realize why it’s all worth it.

After you decide on your goals, get help from experts and don’t be afraid to ask them all kinds of questions. They’re there to help you create a plan to tackle your goals. Your plan is there to support your ambitions and to guide you. Make your plan realistic so that you can actually work with it and still live a balanced life. Work your goals into your budget. Dividing your income into bills, your goals, and leisure will be a no-brainer after a while. Picking up a book with investment tips and following your favourite financial blog will be a fun and interesting pursuit, even a passion. As you check-in on your investments from time to time, watching them grow will inspire you to do even more for your long-term plans. This will all become part of your standard practice. And hopefully, you’re exercising regularly too. Health is a form of wealth after all!

 

Jillian

Me at a Jillian Michaels talk in 2013